As founder of Longevity Vision Fund, I am often asked about the most promising life extension breakthroughs, from early cancer diagnostics to human avatars and everything in between. The simple answer is that there are many — but that’s probably not the kind of answer you were looking for!

Instead, let’s look at the latest longevity breakthroughs working on each of the five major levels of biological organization (cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism) and what they each aim to accomplish.

1. Cells: Reprogram

Biologists classify cells as the simplest level of organization in a living organism. Aging — on a cellular level — is often defined as the accumulation of destructive changes caused by changes to gene expression that gradually shift our cells to an aged state.

This is why it’s particularly exciting that a new study demonstrated that it is possible to partially reprogram old cells, allowing them to regain youthful function. Led by a team of researchers including the legendary Dr. David Sinclair, scientists used cellular reprogramming to reinstate youthful function and successfully rejuvenate old cells in the eyes of mice — successfully restoring vision in a mouse version of glaucoma.

Read more here.